How ‘vector interpretation’ of Kepler’s second law hints at the presence of gravitational force between the Sun and a planet

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Image by mdherren from Pixabay.

Johannes Kepler, the German mathematician and astronomer, is one of the most famous names in astronomy. Kepler formulated three laws of planetary motion based on the precise, detailed and meticulously recorded observations of planetary motion and stars by the great Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (who collected astronomical data without the aid of a telescope). Kepler worked as an assistant to Tycho Brahe. It took him around 20 years to arrive at the laws of planetary motion. These laws can be stated as follows (source: Wikipedia):

  1. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the…


The science behind a counter-intuitive everyday observation

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Photo by Toa Heftiba on Unsplash

In our daily lives, so many things happen around us, which look quite ordinary. Some are human-made, and some are natural. We do not see anything surprising in them as they are a part of our daily routine. But, if we think about them for a bit and wonder why a particular thing happens in the way it happens, we will be surprised to know the beautiful explanations science offers. Many times, the science behind ordinary things in our lives also governs some of the biggest human-made and natural phenomena. …


The Science of Liquid Droplets

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Photo by Miguel Luis on Unsplash

Ever wondered what happens to a raindrop during its journey from clouds to the ground? It does not stay intact. It deforms and breaks as it comes down. According to Villermaux and Bossa, the raindrop flattens as it comes down and forms a bag-like structure before it breaks (I strongly recommend watching the supplementary movie on this page for the high-definition video).

Why does a Liquid Droplet Break?

A liquid droplet assumes a spherical shape because of surface tension. The force of surface tension tries to minimize the surface area of a liquid droplet for a given volume. Since a sphere has a minimum surface area…


The science behind a counter-intuitive everyday observation

Image for post
Image for post
Photo by Toa Heftiba on Unsplash

In our daily lives, so many things happen around us which look quite ordinary. Some are man-made and some are natural. We do not see anything surprising in them as they are a part of our daily routine. But, if we think about them for a bit, and wonder why a particular thing happens in the way it happens, we will be surprised to know the beautiful explanations science offers. Many times, the science behind ordinary things in our lives also governs some of the biggest man-made and natural phenomena. …


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Photo by Martin Brechtl on Unsplash

Do you think the raindrops we receive at the ground have the same size during their entire journey? No. They form in the clouds. They coalesce as they come down and form bigger droplets. These bigger droplets then disintegrate (anatomy of a raindrop). Villermaux and Bossa believe that the raindrop disintegration happens through this beautiful mechanism (for the high-definition video, I highly recommend watching this supplementary movie). Initially, the droplet deforms/flattens, and then, it disintegrates into smaller droplets. These smaller droplets are the ones which we receive at the ground. These smaller droplets do not undergo further disintegration before they…

Sumit Joshi

PhD student, IIT Madras, India

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